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Kinship to mastery : biophilia in human evolution and development

See more. David Tracey. Provocative, passionate and populist, RMB Manifestos are short and concise non-fiction books of literary, critical, and cultural studies. Reinventing Nature? Michael E. How much of science is culturally constructed?

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How much depends on language and metaphor? How do our ideas about nature connect with reality? Can nature be "reinvented" through theme parks and malls, or through restoration? Leading thinkers from a variety of fields -- philosophy, psychology, sociology, public policy, forestry, and others -- address the conflict between perception and reality of nature, each from a different perspective.

The editors of the volume provide an insightful introductory chapter that places the book in the context of contemporary debates and a concluding chapter that brings together themes and draws conclusions from the dialogue. Katherine Hayles, Stephen R.

Stephen Kellert

Kellert, Gary P. Nabhan, Paul Shepard, and Donald Worster. James Trefil. A radical approach to the environment which argues that by harnessing the power of science for human benefit, we can have a healthier planet As a prizewinning theoretical physicist and an outspoken advocate for scientific literacy, James Trefil has long been the public's guide to a better understanding of the world. Walter World Resources Institute. Bridging the gap between local knowledge and western science is essential to understanding the world's ecosystems and the ways in which humans interact with and shape those ecosystems.

This book brings together a group of world-class scientists in an unprecedented effort to build a formal framework for linking local and indigenous knowledge with the global scientific enterprise. Contributors explore the challenges, costs, and benefits of bridging scales and knowledge systems in assessment processes and in resource management. Case studies look at a variety of efforts to bridge scales, providing important lessons concerning what has worked, what has not, and the costs and benefits associated with those efforts.

Recent research strongly suggests that the opportunity for children younger than age 11 to explore in wild, natural environments is especially important for developing their biophilic tendencies and that the type of play should be child-nature play, such as catching frogs in a creek or fireflies at night, versus only child-child play such as playing war games with walnuts. Such informal exploration stimulates genuine interest in and valuing of environmental knowledge that is then provided in more structured environmental education programs.

During early childhood, the main objective of environmental education should be the development of empathy between the child and the natural world. In addition to opportunities to explore and play in nature, one of the best ways to foster empathy with young children is to cultivate relationships to animals. This includes exposure to indigenous animals, both real and imagined. Young children are implicitly drawn to animals and especially baby animals. Animals are an endless source of wonder for children, fostering a caring attitude and sense of responsibility towards living things.

Children interact instinctively and naturally with animals, talk to them, and invest in them emotionally. Endangered species are not appropriate at this age. Developing an emotional connectedness—empathy—to the natural world is the essential foundation for the later stages of environmental education.

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Forest kindergartens are now found in many other countries including Scotland, Scandinavia, Switzerland and Austria. Exploring the nearby world and learning your place in it should be the primary objective for this 'bonding with the earth' stage of environmental education. Developmentally appropriate activities include creating small imaginary worlds, hunting and gathering, searching for treasures, following streams and pathways, exploring the landscape natural, not adult manicured landscapes , taking care of animals and gardening.

Plants have substantial interest to children when they provide wildlife habitat. Social action appropriately begins around age 12 and extends beyond age As children start to discover the 'self' of adolescence and feel their connectedness to society, they are naturally inclined toward wanting to save the world, assuming of course that they had the opportunities in their earlier years to develop empathy for and to explore the natural world. Their opportunities for environmental preservation should be focused at the local level where children can relate to the outcomes rather than in some far-off unknown rainforest.

The world once offered children the thousands of delights of the natural world. Children used to have free access to the outside world of wild nature, whether in the vacant lots and parks of urban areas or the fields, forests, streams of suburbia and rural areas. Children could explore and interact with the natural world with little or no restrictions or supervision.

The lives of children today are much more structured, supervised and scheduled with few opportunities to explore and interact with the natural outdoor environment.

Evolution and human culture - Society and Culture - MCAT - Khan Academy

Childhood and regular unsupervised play in the outdoor natural world are no longer synonymous. Today, most children live what one play authority has referred to as a childhood of imprisonment. Children are disconnected from the natural world outside their doors. With developmentally appropriate natural outdoor environments and programs, schools can help our children develop to become responsible stewards of the earth. To accomplish this, children need regular contact with natural environments that offer them opportunities for play and exploration, where they can explore and bond with nature, rather than the paradigm of recess on manufactured play equipment in a sterile or manicured landscape area.

Rather than playgrounds, children need to be offered naturalized environments, the wilder the better, where they can interact with nature and the animals and insects that inhabit it.

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Children need to be given daily access to outdoor natural environments for extended periods of time. Schools, early childhood educators and teachers need to free themselves from the paradigm of giving children indoor play and learning and manufactured outdoor playgrounds and instead allow children to reclaim the magic that is their birthright—the ability to play and learn outdoors through exploration, discovery and the power of their imaginations in intimate contact with nature.

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It is only through such positive experiences outdoors that children will develop their love of nature and a desire to protect it for their future and later generations. Berenguer, J. Bergen, D. Play as a medium for learning and development. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Washington, D. Bixler, Robert D. Bredencamp, S. Developmentally appropriate practice in early childhood education.

Bunting, T. Cousins Environmental dispositions among school-age children. Environment and Behavior , 17 6. Case, R. Monographs of the Society of Research in Child Developmnet, vol. Chicago:University of Chicago Press. Chawla, L.

Compassionate Coexistence: Personizing the Land in Aldo Leopold’s Land-Ethic

Learning to love the natural world enough to protect it. Barn, 2, Chipeniuk, Raymond C. Dutcher, D. Dyson, A. Visions of children as language users: Language and language education in early childhood. Handbook of research on the education of young children , ed. Spodek, New York: Macmillan. To be sure, for an ecologist like Leopold, species, habitats and biotic pyramids ibid, are exciting to think and to moralize about.

But consider the average citizen. Will he care about the biotic pyramid? What is ecologically correct is not necessarily ethically compelling. Acting responsibly is contingent upon evidence that our behavior affects and is meaningful to individual others Heberlein and that we are personally liable cf. Darley and Latane The average citizen understands much better why it is good to post a birdhouse in the garden than why he should reduce his carbon footprint in order to protect biodiversity.

He must have seen the Sand County that gave rise to the Sand County Almanac his collection of stories and environmental essays, i. The one-on-one encounter with particular animals, plants, and landscapes that, collectively, constitute Nature is the mediating link between personal responsibility and actual land-ethical conduct. To personize another being means to recognize him or her as an individual with a unique set of qualities, motivations and capacities. Berry , cited in Cullinan Personization, thus, is the extension of the respect and appreciation we show to our beloved others beyond the circle of kin, friends and species.

The request for personizing the non-human world is no ivory-tower notion about how the world could be a better place in a parallel universe. The present argument solely depends on the natural personizing capacity of the human mind. Recognizing personhood is what we do every day. We automatically single a being out of its category when we encounter him or her.